BS ISO 20965:2021 pdf download – Plastics — Determination of the transient extensional viscosity of polymer melts

02-17-2022 comment

BS ISO 20965:2021 pdf download – Plastics — Determination of the transient extensional viscosity of polymer melts.
4 General principles In contrast to shear flow where reference is normally made only to steady shear flow behaviour, extensional flow behaviour is best described as being transient. In describing the transient behaviour of materials in extension at constant strain rate, they may exhibit either an unbounded stress growth behaviour in which the stress continually increases with increasing strain until the material fails, or the stress reaches a steady value with increasing strain thus yielding a tensile or equilibrium extensional viscosity. The latter occurs typically at large strains. An equilibrium extensional viscosity is thus dependent on strain rate but not on strain or time. Normally, the extensional viscosity varies as a function of both strain and strain rate as well as temperature. In describing and modelling plastics processing, the use of Hencky strain is preferred. The rate of Hencky strain of an element of fluid within a flow is independent of its original length and is determined only from the velocity field of that element. It is thus a more suitable characteristic of the flow. Strain and strain rate are taken by default herein to be Hencky values. Stretching flow methods can be used to generate quantitatively accurate data on the extensional viscoelasticity of polymer melts. In carrying out extensional flow measurements, there are four types of measurement that are normally made: constant strain rate, constant stress, constant force and constant speed. This document describes the first of these: constant strain rate. In this method, the strain rate is uniform throughout the specimen and is held constant with time. The basic principle behind stretching flow measurements is to subject a specimen to a tensile stretching deformation. By measurement of the force and deformation of the specimen, the stresses and strains and hence strain rate can be determined.

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